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Floyd's All Pairs Shortest Path Algorithm

by L. Shyamal


Environment: C++ (any variety)


Graph algorithms work on nodes and edges. Nodes and edges are represented in many ways. This well-known algorithm uses a connectivity matrix. The matrix is a square matrix with the number of columns and rows the same as there are Nodes. The diagonal elements are set to zero. The offdiagonals are 1 if connected and 0 if not connected. (You could also use distances if you are dealing with something like road distances.)

The output of the algorithm is a matrix of the shortest distances between every pair of points. Notice that I am using a one-dimensional, linear array to represent matrices because this does not lead to any problems in memory allocation or differences across compilers.

The Code

// Floyd's All pairs shortest path algorithm (O (n^3) ) 
// input is adjacency matrix output is matrix of shortest paths
// C is the adjacency matrix
// n is the order of the square matrix 
// A is the all pairs shortest paths matrix 
// we assume that A is allocated by the caller
int GraphAlgo::ComputeFloydAPSP(int *C, int n, int *A)

  int i,j,k;

  // set all connected positions to 1
  // and all unconnected positions to infinity 
  for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    for (j=0; j<n; j++)
      if ( *(C+i*n+j) == 0)
        *(A+i*n+j) = 999999999; // does this look like infinity ?
        *(A+i*n+j) = 1;

  // set the diagonals to zero
  for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    *(A+i*n+i) = 0;

  // for each route via k from i to j pick 
  // any better routes and replace A[i][j]
  // path with sum of paths i-k and j-k
  for (k=0; k<n; k++)
    for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    for (j=0; j<n; j++)
      if ( *(A+i*n+k) + *(A+k*n+j) < *(A+i*n+j) )
          // A[i][j] = A[i][k] + A[k][j];
                      *(A+i*n+j) = *(A+i*n+k)+ *(A+k*n+j);

  return 0;
} // Floyd's algorithm

// this is for testing Floyd's algorithm
// demonstrates the allocation and 
// deallocation of memory for the matrices
void FloydTest()

  // allocate the entire matrix in one linear array
  // trying to allocate it as an array of pointers to arrays
  // didnt quite work, possibly because the [] and * notation
  // arent quite replaceable
  int n=4;
  int *C=new int[n*n];
    C[0]=0; C[1]=1; C[2]=0; C[3]=0;
    C[4]=1; C[5]=0; C[6]=1, C[7]=0;
    C[8]=0; C[9]=1; C[10]=0;C[11]=1;

  int* A = new int[n*n];

  ComputeFloydAPSP (C,n,A); 

  printf("Final shortest distances\n");
  for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
    for(int j=0;j<n;j++)
      printf("%d ",*(A+i*n+j));
  printf("End of All pairs Shortest paths\n");

    delete [] A;
    delete [] C;

} // end of FloydTest

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